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Surface Fire References

Andrews, P. L.; Heinsch, F. A.; Schelvan, L. 2011. How to generate and interpret fire characteristics charts for surface and crown fire behavior. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-253. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 40p.

Rothermel, R.C. 1983. How to predict the spread and intensity of forest and range fires. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-143. 161p.

Rothermel, Richard C. 1992. Fire behavior nomograms. Appendix A excerpted from How to Predict the Spread and Intensity of Forest and Range Fuels. PMS 436-3, NFES 2220. Boise, ID: National Wildfire Coordinating Group. 28p.

Scott, Joe H.; Burgan, Robert E. 2005. Standard fire behavior fuel models: a comprehensive set for use with Rothermel’s surface fire spread model. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-153. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 72 p.

Scott, Joe H.  2007.  Nomographs for estimating surface fire behavior characteristics.   Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-192. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 119p.